Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Kalanchoe laxiflora
M-type_MADS Family
Species TF ID Description
Kaladp0001s0097.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0007s0025.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0008s0873.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0011s0586.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0016s0324.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0022s0108.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0024s0844.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0032s0175.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0032s0175.2.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0033s0056.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0037s0386.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0037s0437.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0040s0283.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0040s0284.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0040s0285.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0040s0346.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0043s0222.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0045s0451.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0045s0452.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0047s0076.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0047s0077.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0047s0078.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0055s0058.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0055s0088.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0057s0074.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0057s0089.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0057s0092.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0057s0093.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0059s0023.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0062s0140.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0067s0029.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0067s0030.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0071s0096.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0071s0096.2.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0074s0018.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0074s0019.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0074s0020.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0076s0114.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0080s0023.3.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0080s0023.4.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0083s0049.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0085s0105.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0093s0127.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0096s0054.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0100s0111.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0100s0112.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0101s0127.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0101s0253.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0101s0253.2.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0101s0253.3.pM-type_MADS family protein
Kaladp0476s0002.1.pM-type_MADS family protein
M-type_MADS (M-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513